Like the name suggests, Nature photography is the photography of the elements of nature. It is mainly taken outdoors for the purpose of displaying these natural elements. The elements include landscapes, wildlife, plants, and close-ups of natural scenes and textures. Nature photography is different from photojournalism in that it tends to put a stronger emphasis on the aesthetic value of the photo. On the other hand, Wildlife photography focuses on animals in their natural habitats. These animals are often photographed in action, while eating, fighting, or in flight. Alternatively, more static portraits may be used to show detail of the animal or to depict it in its environment. For static portraits, Captive or controlled animals are often photographed instead of the true wild specimens. Wildlife photography techniques differ greatly from those used in landscape photography. For instance, in wildlife photography, wide apertures are used to achieve a fast shutter speed, freeze the subject's motion and blur the backgrounds.

Landscape photographers prefer smaller apertures. Wildlife is also usually captured with long telephoto lenses from a great distance. The use of such telephoto lenses frequently necessitates the use of a tripod stand since a long lens makes it difficult to hold the camera as it increases in weight and therefore harder to hold steady. Many wildlife photographers use camouflage to avoid being spotted by the wild animals.