Rock climbing means to climb up or down natural rocks or some artificial formations. Climbing competitions in rocks are held among those who are eager to complete the route in the shortest time or to overcome some difficult routes. Scrambling is the similar activity, which involves the scaling of hills. The fact that differentiates rock climbing from scrambling is that rock climbers use their hands to support the weight. Rock climbing is rather dangerous sport which demands physical and mental activity, endurance. A climber has to know proper climbing techniques and to use special climbing equipment. Rock climbing can be divided into several styles; it’s recognized by the International Olympic Committee as a kind of sport.

Naturally mountaineers must possess special shoes with crampons attached to them in order to provide traction on the snow. Ski mountaineering is a form of sport which comprises various techniques of mountaineering and alpine skiing, for e. x. to ascend or to descend snow slopes a mountaineer has to use a special ice axe. At first it was used as a walking stick, then as a stake, a dagger. There are a great number of ice axe designs depending on the peculiarities of the territory. Sometimes anchors for the ropes seem to be rather unreliable and it’s not so safe to use only them. Anchors include pickets, flukes devised from important objects (such as skis, ice axe).

To travel over glaciers is full of unforgettable impressions, but at the same time it requires special knowledge. Cracks in the ice may be rather giant and at the same time invisible for travelers as they’re covered with snow. When the snow is blown too much and it freezes over the top, a snowbridge appears. Very often snowbridges are too thin (only a few inches) and unreliable for travelling. To avoid all hazards climbers use a special system of ropes. The basic equipment for glacier travelling includes ice axes and crampons. All climbers in the team are tied to each other with the help of the ropes. In the case one of the climbers is falling, other climbers prevent him from falling and pull him from the crevasse.

Various methods exist that help travelers cross the ice. If the climbers try to cross the steep terrain, the first climber sticks ice screws to the ice and fixes the rope with the aim of protection. Each climber of the team clips past an anchor and the last climber must pick up this anchor. When the terrain is very steep, climbers use standard techniques of ice-climbing where all climbers are belayed and move simultaneously.