Mountaineering (mountain climbing) is a kind of sport or hobby which combines climbing mountains, skiing, hiking. Mountaineering has been branched into several specializations depending on the chosen route: snow, rock, ice. So mountaineering may be separated into snow-craft, rock-craft, skiing. All these types of activity are rather extreme and require good experience, technical knowledge and, of course, athletic ability. 

          Alpinism and Mountaineering are the same notions, where the word Alpinism is more frequently used in Europe and means climbing mountains (for e,x, the Alpines) with difficulty. Alpinist is a person who climbs the mountain with great skills. The notion alpinism appeared in the 19th century to describe the process of climbing the mountain where the aim was just to enjoy this kind of activity and not to hunt or to pilgrimage.

          Union Internationale des Associations d’Alpinisme (the UIAA) is the world government in climbing and mountaineering which addresses such issues as mountain protection, medical protection, youth climbing, safety.